This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Long-term Experience of Glatiramer Acetate in Treating Multiple Sclerosis Exp Neurol, 2007;206:231–9.

12. Zozulga AL, Wiendl H, The role of regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis, Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 2008;4;384–98.

13. Hemmer B, Cepok S, Nessler S, Sommer N, Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: an update on immunology, Curr Opin Neurol, 2002;15:227–31.

14. Bornstein MB, Miller A, Slagle S, et al., A pilot trial of Cop 1 in exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis, N Engl J Med, 1987;317:408–14.

15. Weber MS, Hohlfeld R, Zamvil SS, Mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis, Neurotherapeutics, 2007;4:647–53.

16. Lalive PH, Neuhaus O, Benkhoucha M, et al., Glatiramer acetate in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: emerging concepts regarding its mechanism of action, CNS Drugs, 2011;25:401–14.

17. Johnson KP, Glatiramer acetate and the glatiramoid class of immunomodulator drugs in multiple sclerosis: an update, Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2010;6:643–60.

18. Begum-Haque S, Sharma A, Kasper IR, et al., Downregulation of IL-17 and IL-6 in the central nervous system by glatiramer acetate in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, J Neuroimmunol, 2008;204:58–65.

19. Ruggieri M, Pica C, Lia A, et al., Combination treatment of glatiramer acetate and minocycline affects phenotype expression of blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells in multiple sclerosis patients, J Neuroimmunol, 2008;197:140–6.

20. Karandikar NJ, Crawford MP, Yan X, et al., Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) therapy induces CD8(+) T cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis, J Clin Invest, 2002;109:641–9.

21. Aharoni R, Eilam R, Domev H, et al., The immunomodulator glatiramer acetate augments the expression of neurotrophic factors in brains of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2005;102:19045–50.

22. Aharoni R, Kayhan B, Eilam R, et al., Glatiramer acetate-specific T cells in the brain express T helper 2/3 cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in situ, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2003;100:14157–62.

23. Ziemssen T, Schrempf W, Glatiramer acetate: mechanisms of action in multiple sclerosis, Int Rev Neurobiol, 2007;79:537–70.

24. Blanchette F, Neuhaus O, Glatiramer acetate: evidence for a dual mechanism of action, J Neurol, 2008;255(Suppl. 1):26–36.

25. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Cohen JA, et al., Copolymer 1 reduces relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group, Neurology, 1995;45:1268–76.

26. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Cohen JA, et al., Extended use of glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) is well tolerated and maintains its clinical effect on multiple sclerosis relapse rate and degree of disability. Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group, Neurology, 1998;50:701–8.

27. Ford C, Goodman AD, Johnson K, et al., Continuous long-term immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: results from the 15-year analysis of the US prospective open- label study of glatiramer acetate, Mult Scler, 2010;16:342–50.

28. Filippi M, Rovaris M, Rocca MA, et al., Glatiramer acetate reduces the proportion of new MS lesions evolving into “black holes”, Neurology, 2001;57:731–3.

29. Comi G, Filippi M, Wolinsky JS, European/Canadian multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of glatiramer acetate on magnetic resonance imaging—measured disease activity and burden in

patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. European/Canadian Glatiramer Acetate Study Group, Ann Neurol, 2001;49:290–7.

30. Sormani MP, Bruzzi P, Comi G, Filippi M, The distribution of the magnetic resonance imaging response to glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis, Mult Scler, 2005;11:447–9.

31. Sormani MP, Rovaris M, Valsasina P, et al., Measurement error of two different techniques for brain atrophy assessment in multiple sclerosis, Neurology, 2004;62:1432–4.

32. Khan O, Bao F, Shah M, et al., Effect of disease-modifying therapies on brain volume in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results of a five-year brain MRI study, J Neurol Sci, 2012;312(1–2):7–12.

33. Mikol DD, Barkhof F, Chang P, et al., Comparison of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a with glatiramer acetate in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (the REbif vs Glatiramer Acetate in Relapsing MS Disease [REGARD] study): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label trial, Lancet Neurol, 2008;7:903–14.

34. Filippi M, Rocca MA, Perego E, et al., Benefit of early treatment with glatiramer acetate: MRI results from the 5-year prospectively planned follow up in patients with clinically isolated syndrome enrolled in the PreCISe study, Presented at: 26th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Gothenburg, Sweden, October 13–16, 2010.

35. Comi G, Martinelli V, Rodegher M, et al., Effect of glatiramer acetate on conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (PreCISe study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet, 2009;374:1503–11.

36. O’Connor P, Filippi M, Arnason B, et al., 250 microg or 500 microg interferon beta-1b versus 20 mg glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a prospective, randomised, multicentre study, Lancet Neurol, 2009;8:889–97.

37. Cadavid D, Wolansky LJ, Skurnick J, et al., Efficacy of treatment of MS with IFNbeta-1b or glatiramer acetate by monthly brain MRI in the BECOME study, Neurology, 2009;72:1976–83.

38. Zwibel HL, Glatiramer acetate in treatment-naive and prior interferon-beta-1b-treated multiple sclerosis patients, Acta Neurol Scand, 2006;113:378–86.

39. Caon C, Din M, Ching W, et al., Clinical course after change of immunomodulating therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Eur J Neurol, 2006;13:471–4.

40. Carra A, Onaha P, Luetic G, et al., Therapeutic outcome 3 years after switching of immunomodulatory therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Argentina, Eur J Neurol, 2008;15:386–93.

41. Ziemssen T, Carra A, Del Klippel N, et al., Insights from the Coptimize study: Characteristics of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients switching to glatiramer acetate, Presented at: 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, Honolulu, HI, April 9–16, 2011.

42. Chinea A, Rodriguez L, Bryan J, Clinical experience in Hispanic MS patients switching from natalizumab to Copaxone®, Presented at: 5th Joint Triennial Congress of the European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 19–22, 2011.

43. Rossi S, Ristori G, Studer V, et al., An open-label, nonrandomized, prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of glatiramer acetate 20 mg sc once daily in patients with severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that have discontinued natalizumab after 12 to 18 months therapy. Preliminary Results, Presented at: 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology,

Honolulu, HI, April 9–16, 2011, PD6.005.

44. Salminen HJ, Leggett H, Boggild M, Glatiramer acetate exposure in pregnancy: preliminary safety and birth outcomes, J Neurol, 2010;257:2020–3.

45. Brochet B, [Long-term effects of glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis], Rev Neurol (Paris), 2008;164:917–26.

46. Edgar CM, Brunet DG, Fenton P, et al., Lipoatrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis on glatiramer acetate, Can J Neurol Sci, 2004;31:58–63.

47. Zwibel H, Pardo G, Smith S, et al., A multicenter study of the predictors of adherence to self-injected glatiramer acetate for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, J Neurol, 2010;258:402–11.

48. Jongen PJ, Hengstman G, Hupperts R, et al., Drug adherence and multidisciplinary care in patients with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a prospective, web-based, patient-centred, nation-wide, Dutch cohort study in glatiramer acetate treated patients (CAIR study), BMC Neurol, 2011;11:40.

49. Halpern R, Agarwal S, Dembek C, et al., Comparison of adherence and persistence among multiple sclerosis patients treated with disease-modifying therapies: a retrospective administrative claims analysis, Patient Prefer Adherence, 2011;5:73–84.

50. Oleen-Burkey MA, Dor A, Castelli-Haley J, Lage MJ, The relationship between alternative medication possession ratio thresholds and outcomes: evidence from the use of glatiramer acetate, J Med Econ, 2011;14:739–47.

51. Castelli-Haley J, Oleen-Burkey M, Lage MJ, Johnson KP, Glatiramer acetate versus interferon beta-1a for subcutaneous administration: comparison of outcomes among multiple sclerosis patients, Adv Ther, 2008;25:658–73.

52. Castelli-Haley J, Oleen-Burkey MA, Lage MJ, Johnson K, Glatiramer acetate and interferon beta-1a for intramuscular administration: a study of outcomes among multiple sclerosis intent-to-treat and persistent-use cohorts, J Med Econ, 2010;13:464–71.

53. Castelli-Haley J, Oleen-Burkey MA, Lage MJ, Johnson KP, Glatiramer acetate and interferon beta-1b: a study of outcomes among patients with multiple sclerosis, Adv Ther, 2009;26:552–62.

54. Lage MJ, Castelli-Haley J, Oleen-Burkey MA, Effect of immunomodulatory therapy and other factors on employment loss time in multiple sclerosis, Work, 2006;27:143–51.

55. Teva Pharmaceuticals, A study in subjects with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to sssess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of glatiramer acetate (GA) injection 40 mg administered three times a week compared to placebo (GALA), NCT01067521, 2011. Available at: (accessed November 24, 2011).

56. Carra A, Onaha P, Halfon J, The impact of glatiramer acetate on progression of disability over a decade of continuous therapy, Mult Scler, 2007;13(Suppl. 2):S68.

57. Debouverie M, Moreau T, Lebrun C, et al., A longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with glatiramer acetate, Eur J Neurol, 2007;14:1266–74.

58. Miller A, Spada V, Beerkircher D, Kreitman RR, Long-term (up to 22 years), open-label, compassionate-use study of glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Mult Scler, 2008;14:494–9.

59. Trojano M, Paolicelli D, Tortorella C, et al., Natural history of multiple sclerosis: have available therapies impacted long-term prognosis?, Neurol Clin, 2011;29:309–21.



Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108