This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Neurodegenerative Disease Parkinson’s Disease


Olfactory dysfunction in PD has been linked to cholinergic denervation of the limbic archicortex and may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment.159


Conclusion


NMS of PD are diverse, frequent, and disabling. Although they have been underappreciated and under-researched for decades,160


there is increased


awareness of their presence and importance. There are now validated clinical and research tools such as the NMSQuest, the NMS scale, the


1. Langston JW, The parkinson's complex: Parkinsonism is just the tip of the iceberg, Ann Neurol, 2006;59:591–6.


2. Zesiewicz TA, Sullivan KL, Arnulf I, et al., Practice Parameter: treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, Neurology, 2010;74:924–31.


3. Chaudhuri KR, Healy DG, Schapira AH, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management, Lancet Neurol, 2006;5:235–45.


4. Visser M, van Rooden SM, Verbaan D, et al., A comprehensive model of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol, 2008;255:1580–7.


5. Chaudhuri KR, Schapira AH, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment, Lancet Neurol, 2009;8:464–74.


6. Goldstein DS, Sewell L, Holmes C, Association of anosmia with autonomic failure in Parkinson disease, Neurology, 2010;74:245–51.


7. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rub U, et al., Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease, Neurobiol Aging, 2003;24:197–211.


8. Williams-Gray CH, Foltynie T, Brayne CE, et al., Evolution of cognitive dysfunction in an incident Parkinson's disease cohort, Brain, 2007;130:1787–98.


9. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Anderson SW, et al., Visual dysfunction in Parkinson disease without dementia, Neurology, 2005;65:1907–13.


10. Aarsland D, Bronnick K, Larsen JP, et al., Cognitive impairment in incident, untreated Parkinson disease: The Norwegian ParkWest Study, Neurology, 2009;72:1121–6.


11. Schrag A, Jahanshahi M, Quinn N, What contributes to quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease?, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2000;69:308–12.


12. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Anderson SW, et al., Impaired visual search in drivers with Parkinson's disease, Ann Neurol, 2006;60:407–13.


13. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Anderson SW, et al., Impaired navigation in drivers with Parkinson's disease, Brain, 2007;130:2433–40.


14. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Anderson SW, et al., Driving under low-contrast visibility conditions in Parkinson disease, Neurology, 2009;73:1103–10.


15. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Johnson AM, et al., Road safety in drivers with Parkinson disease, Neurology, 2009;73:2112–9.


16. Vossius C, Larsen JP, Janvin C, et al., The economic impact of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, 2011;26:1541–4.


17. Kempster PA, Williams DR, Selikhova M, et al., Patterns of levodopa response in Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study, Brain, 2007;130:2123–8.


18. Buter TC, van den HA, Matthews FE, et al., Dementia and survival in Parkinson disease: a 12-year population study, Neurology, 2008;70:1017–22.


19. Hughes TA, Ross HF, Musa S, et al., A 10-year study of the incidence of and factors predicting dementia in Parkinson's disease, Neurology, 2000;54:1596–602.


20. Levy G, Schupf N, Tang MX, et al., Combined effect of age and severity on the risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease, Ann Neurol, 2002;51:722–9.


21. Aarsland D, Andersen K, Larsen JP, et al., Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease: an 8-year prospective study, Arch Neurol, 2003;60:387–92.


22. Hely MA, Reid WG, Adena MA, et al., The Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson's disease: the inevitability of dementia at 20 years, Mov Disord, 2008;23:837–44.


23. Hobson P, Meara J, Risk and incidence of dementia in a cohort of older subjects with Parkinson's disease in the United Kingdom, Mov Disord, 2004;19:1043–9.


24. Marder K, Tang MX, Cote L, et al., The frequency and associated risk factors for dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease, Arch Neurol, 1995;52:695–701.


25. Aarsland D, Andersen K, Larsen JP, et al., Risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease: a community-based, prospective study, Neurology, 2001;56:730–6.


26. Litvan I, Aarsland D, Adler CH, et al., MDS task force on mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Critical review of PD-MCI, Mov Disord, 2011;26:1814–24.


27. Aarsland D, Bronnick K, Williams-Gray C, et al,. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease: a multicenter pooled analysis, Neurology, 2010;75:1062–9.


28. Aarsland D, Bronnick K, Larsen JP, et al., Cognitive impairment


Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease (SCOPA), and the modified version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) for assessing NMS.160


Physicians should probe


their PD patients about their NMS and address them to improve their quality of life. Clinical trials should incorporate NMS as outcomes for more meaningful conclusions on the effect of treatments under investigation. Primary research on NMS will improve the understanding of PD and will advance the care of PD patients. n


in incident, untreated Parkinson disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study, Neurology, 2009;72:1121–6.


29. Aarsland D, Bronnick K, Fladby T, Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, 2011;11:371–8.


30. Emre M, Aarsland D, Brown R, et al., Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, 2007;22:1689–707.


31. Uc EY, McDermott MP, Marder KS, et al., Incidence of and risk factors for cognitive impairment in an early Parkinson disease clinical trial cohort, Neurology, 2009;73:1469–77.


32. Poewe W, Dysautonomia and cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, 2007;22:S374-S378.


33. Cools R, Barker RA, Sahakian BJ, et al., Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands, Cereb Cortex, 2001;11:1136–43.


34. Smeding HM, Speelman JD, Huizenga HM, et al., Predictors of cognitive and psychosocial outcome after STN DBS in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2011;82:754–60.


35. Weaver FM, Follett K, Stern M, et al., Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA, 2009;301:63–73.


36. Follett KA, Weaver FM, Stern M, et al., Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, N Engl J Med, 2010;362:2077–91.


37. van LT, De Deyn PP, Aarsland D, et al., Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease dementia: a review of clinical data, CNS Neurosci Ther, 2011;17:428–41.


38. Emre M, Dementia in Parkinson's disease: cause and treatment, Curr Opin Neurol, 2004;17:399–404.


39. Ravina B, Putt M, Siderowf A, et al., Donepezil for dementia in Parkinson's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2005;76:934–9.


40. Aarsland D, Ballard C, Walker Z, et al., Memantine in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial, Lancet Neurol, 2009;8:613–8.


41. Emre M, Tsolaki M, Bonuccelli U, et al., Memantine for patients with Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet Neurol, 2010;9:969–77.


42. Biousse V, Skibell BC, Watts RL, et al., Ophthalmologic features of Parkinson's disease, Neurology, 2004;62:177–80.


43. Oh YS, Kim JS, Chung SW, et al., Color vision in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, Eur J Neurol, 2011;18:577–83.


44. Sampaio J, Bobrowicz-Campos E, Andre R, et al., Specific impairment of visual spatial covert attention mechanisms in Parkinson's disease, Neuropsychologia, 2011;49:34–42.


45. Rodnitzky RL, Visual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, Clin Neurosci, 1998;5:102–6.


46. Azulay JP, Mesure S, Amblard B, et al., Visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease, Brain, 1999;122(Pt 1):111–20.


47. Donovan S, Lim C, Diaz N, et al., Laserlight cues for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease: an open-label study, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2011;17:240–5.


48. Frazzitta G, Maestri R, Uccellini D, et al., Rehabilitation treatment of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing: a comparison between two physical therapy protocols using visual and auditory cues with or without treadmill training, Mov Disord, 2009;24:1139–43.


49. Uc EY, Rizzo M, Johnson AM, et al., Real-life driving outcomes in Parkinson disease, Neurology, 2011;76:1894–902.


50. Aarsland D, Larsen JP, Lim NG, et al., Range of neuropsychiatric disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1999;67:492–6.


51. Schrag A, Barone P, Brown RG, et al., Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations, Mov Disord, 2007;22:1077–92.


52. Reijnders JS, Ehrt, U, Weber WE, et al., A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, 2008;23:183–9.


53. Tandberg E, Larsen JP, Aarsland D, et al., The occurrence of depression in Parkinson's disease. A community-based study, Arch Neurol, 1996;53:175–9.


54. Dissanayaka NN, Sellbach A, Silburn PA, et al., Factors


associated with depression in Parkinson's disease, J Affect Disord, 2011;132:82–8.


55. Leentjens AF, Lousberg R, Verhey FR, Markers for depression in Parkinson's disease, Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2002;106:196–201.


56. Devos D, Dujardin K, Poirot I, et al., Comparison of desipramine and citalopram treatments for depression in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, Mov Disord, 2008;23:850–7.


57. Menza M, Dobkin RD, Marin H, et al., A controlled trial of antidepressants in patients with Parkinson disease and depression, Neurology, 2009;72:886–92.


58. Chen P, Kales HC, Weintraub D, et al., Antidepressant treatment of veterans with Parkinson's disease and depression: analysis of a national sample, J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol, 2007;20:161–5.


59. Barone P, Poewe W, Albrecht S, et al., Pramipexole for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet Neurol, 2010;9:573–80.


60. Pontone GM, Williams JR, Anderson KE, et al., Prevalence of anxiety disorders and anxiety subtypes in patients with Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, 2009;24:1333–8.


61. Leentjens AF, Dujardin K, Marsh L, et al., Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a validation study of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, the Beck anxiety inventory, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale, Mov Disord, 2011;26:407–15.


62. Witjas T, Kaphan E, Azulay JP, et al., Nonmotor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: frequent and disabling, Neurology, 2002;59:408–13.


63. Fenelon G, Mahieux F, Huon R, et al., Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors, Brain, 2000;123(Pt 4):733–45.


64. Chou KL, Fernandez HH, Combating psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients: the use of antipsychotic drugs, Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2006;15:339–49.


65. Chou KL, Messing S, Oakes D, et al., Drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson disease: phenomenology and correlations among psychosis rating instruments, Clin Neuropharmacol, 2005;28:215–9.


66. Barnes J, David AS, Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a review and phenomenological survey, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2001;70:727–33.


67. Miyasaki JM, Shannon K, Voon V, et al., Practice Parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, Neurology, 2006;66:996–1002.


68. Weintraub D, Koester J, Potenza MN, et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients, Arch Neurol, 2010;67:589–95.


69. Voon V, Sohr M, Lang AE, et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a multicenter case–control study, Ann Neurol, 2011;69:986–96.


70. Cools R, Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function – implications for L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2006;30:1–23.


71. Ardouin C, Voon V, Worbe Y, et al., Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease improves on chronic subthalamic nucleus stimulation, Mov Disord, 2006;21:1941–6.


72. Smeding HM, Goudriaan AE, Foncke EM, et al., Pathological gambling after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2007;78:517–9.


73. Thomas A, Bonanni L, Gambi F, et al., Pathological gambling in Parkinson disease is reduced by amantadine, Ann Neurol, 2010;68:400–4.


74. Kirsch-Darrow L, Fernandez HH, Marsiske M, et al., Dissociating apathy and depression in Parkinson disease, Neurology, 2006;67:33–8.


75. Pedersen KF, Alves G, Aarsland D, et al., Occurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2009;80:1279–82.


76. Kirsch-Darrow L, Zahodne LB, Marsiske M, et al., The trajectory of apathy after deep brain stimulation: from pre-surgery to 6 months post-surgery in Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2011;17:182–8.


77. Savica R, Carlin JM, Grossardt BR, et al., Medical records documentation of constipation preceding Parkinson disease: A case-control study, Neurology, 2009;73:1752–8.


118


US NEUROLOGY


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108