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Neurodegenerative Disease Parkinson’s Disease

Olfactory dysfunction in PD has been linked to cholinergic denervation of the limbic archicortex and may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment.159


NMS of PD are diverse, frequent, and disabling. Although they have been underappreciated and under-researched for decades,160

there is increased

awareness of their presence and importance. There are now validated clinical and research tools such as the NMSQuest, the NMS scale, the

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Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease (SCOPA), and the modified version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) for assessing NMS.160

Physicians should probe

their PD patients about their NMS and address them to improve their quality of life. Clinical trials should incorporate NMS as outcomes for more meaningful conclusions on the effect of treatments under investigation. Primary research on NMS will improve the understanding of PD and will advance the care of PD patients. n

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