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Foreword K Ray Chaudhuri is a Professor in Neurology/Movement Disorders, a Consultant Neurologist at King’s College Hospital and Kings College, London, an Academic Health Sciences Centre, and also principal investigator at the MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research at King’s College, London. He is the Medical Director of the National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence at Kings College, London. He sits on the Nervous Systems Committee of the UK Department of Health, National Institute of Health Research, and serves as co-chairman of the appointments/liaison committee of the Movement Disorders Society of which he is a member of the Scientific Programme Committee (2013–2015). He is the Chairman of the newly formed Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Non-motor Study group. He is also a member of the World Federation of Neurology (WFN) organisational committee, the task force of the practice parameter group for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) and, more recently, non-motor symptoms of PD, American Academy Neurology. Dr Chaudhuri is the European Editor of Basal Ganglia and is on the editorial board of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders and the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease. He also represents UK research and development in the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) as well as at a local level for the London South Clinical Research Network (CLRN) neurosciences. He serves in the clinical advisory group of Parkinson’s UK and is an advisor to the European Parkinson’s Disease Association. Dr Ray Chaudhuri is the author of 265 papers including reviews, book chapters, co-editor of four books on PD and RLS, and over 300 published peer-reviewed abstracts. He is the chief editor of the first comprehensive textbook on non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s, published by Oxford University Press, and the recipient of a British Medical Association book commendation prize. He has frequently contributed to educational radio and television interviews, including BBC and CNN, newspaper articles and videos. Dr Ray Chaudhuri has also lectured extensively on PD and restless legs syndrome at international meetings in the US, Japan, continental Europe, South America, South Africa, India and Australia. W elcome to the winter edition of European Neurological Review, which features a diverse range of articles covering a number of therapeutic areas. This edition begins with a special report entitled ‘A Year of the Brain’. This article focuses on the economic burden of disorders of the brain, which is increasing with ageing populations around the world. Major advances were made in 2014 in clinical and basic science-based research related to Parkinson’s disease (PD), and this is reflected in two articles in this edition. Kulisevsky discusses the emerging role of safinamide, an oral agent that has a dual mechanism of action, both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic, and has shown promise in early clinical studies. In another review, Lees et al. describe proceedings of a recent satellite symposium with three leading key opinion leaders in the field and outlines the extensive clinical experience of using subcutaneous apomorphine in the management of PD over the past 25 years. In another satellite symposium report, Amarenco et al. discuss the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, including the growing body of data supporting the use of the non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Also on the subject of stroke, Cordonnier et al. outline the pathophysiology and classification of intracerebral haemorrhages, the second most common cause of stroke. Despite the rapid expansion of treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS), the provision of MS treatment remains suboptimal and there is a need for new methodologies assessing the real-world effectiveness of therapies. In this issue, there is a report of a satellite symposium describing the evolution of real-world evidence outcome measures for different MS therapies, which incorporate sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Also in this issue, an editorial by Avanzini discusses whether seizures promote epileptogenesis and cause cognitive decline. Finally, an editorial by Kesselring discusses the concept of neuroplasticity, which has replaced the formerly held idea that the brain is a physiologically static organ and is the basis of lifelong learning, a concept that is without doubt of interest to all our readers. European Neurological Review would like to thank all expert authors who contributed towards this edition. A special thanks goes to our Editorial Board for their continuing support and guidance. We hope you find this edition useful and thought provoking. n © To u ch MEd ica l MEdia 201 4 105